Day 1: Geography of Ancient Italy 600 BCE
What were the strengths in the chosen location for the city of Rome?
Today, students will be introduced to the new unit reviewing the unit essential question as well as the unit learning objectives. The remainder of the class period will focus on exploring the geography of Ancient Italy, comparing and contrasting it to the geography of Ancient Greece. Students will read the primary source document "Rome's Perfect Location" by Cicero and will discuss Cicero's arguments for why the location of the city of Rome was ideal. Class will conclude with a mapping activity in which students map out the main cities, mountain ranges, and bodies of water in Ancient Italy around the time of 600 BCE.
Homework: Critically read the handout "Evolution of the Roman Republic" completing the questions at the end of the reading in your notebook.
Primary Source: Rome's Perfect Location, Cicero (not in electronic format at this time)
Secondary Source: Evolution of the Roman Republic
Day 2: The Roman Republic
How was the Roman Republic structured and what were the benefits to this structure?
This lesson will focus upon understanding the different branches which made up the Roman Republic. After reviewing the previous night's homework and completing an activity in which the roles and duties of each branch of the Republic get filled in on a chart, students will work collaborate with one another to compare the Republic to the Ancient Greek democracies specifically highlighting the strengths and improvements in the Republic.
Homework: Critically read the primary source handout "Rome at the end of the Punic Wars" by Polybius. In your notebook, bullet 3 specific reasons that Polybius gives for why the Roman Republic was an ideal form of government.
Roman Republic Charting Activity
Primary Source: Rome at the end of the Punic Wars, Polybius
Day 3: Reviewing Components of Persuasive Body Paragraphs
What are the essential components of body paragraphs and what do these components look like?
This lesson will focus upon developing students' persuasive writing skills by placing emphasis upon the purpose of and need for the different components of body paragraphs. Students will read and critique a sample paragraph, then the class will write the next paragraph together, and for homework students will write the final paragraph in the "class essay."
Homework: Write the 3rd paragraph. Typed, double spaced please.
Body paragraph activity
Day 4: Roman Law
How did the 12 Tables of Law reflect Roman values, thus illustrating the greatness of Rome?
In class, students will get an overview of the Roman legal system (discussing social class conflicts in particular). In pairs, students will analyze assigned Tables and Laws from the 12 Tables of Law primary source document. As a class, each table and law will be reviewed with a discussion on what values the law expresses and how the law illustrates advancement when particularly compared to the Ancient Greek legal system.
Primary Source: 12 Tables of Law
Day 5: Roman Military
How was the Roman military organized and structured? How did it illustrate Rome's greatness?
Students will begin class with a Reading for Information quiz based upon a primary source reading by Josephus which describes the Roman military. This quiz will assess the student's ability to critically read, assess, analyze, and interpret sources of information. After the quiz, students will be assigned to use the primary source reading to draw a detailed illustration of what a Roman military camp looked like.
Homework: Complete the illustration of the Roman military camp.
Primary Source: Josephus- Description of the Roman Armies
Day 6: Punic Wars
Who fought in the Punic Wars and how did these wars reflect both the greatness and the downfalls of Ancient Rome?
Class will begin with a review of the Josephus primary source reading that was begun in the previous class, emphasizing the arguments that Josephus made for why he believed the Roman army to be superior to all others. Students will then be given background, secondary source information on the 3 Punic wars highlighting the events and outcomes of each. Class will conclude with a reading on the 3rd Punic war and the destruction of Carthage and a class discussion on what made Rome great based upon the Punic Wars.
Homework: Unit Graphic Organizer in preparation for the unit summative assessment.
Primary Sources on the Punic Wars
Day 7: From a Republic to an Empire
What led to the transformation from a republic to an empire in Rome? What was both good and bad about the transformation to an Empire?
Students will receive secondary source information and notes on the historical events and individuals which led to the Roman transformation into an Empire. A class discussion will be based upon the achievements of the Roman Emperors (especially Augustus Caesar) and the downfalls of the Emperors (Nero, Caligula) during the Pax Romana.
Homework: Read the secondary source handout on Roman architecture.
Secondary Source: PowerPoint presentation on transformation from Republic to Empire
Secondary Source: List of Emperors during the Pax Romana
Secondary Source: Roman Architecture
Day 8: Roman Infrastructure
How did the Roman infrastructure reflect the greatness of Rome?
Class will begin with the definition of what an infrastructure is, students will record this definition in their notebooks. As a class, the previous night's homework will be reviewed. The remainder of class will be spent watching portions of the PBS film The Roman City. Students will take notes on the information that the film presents. Class will conclude with a discussion based upon the elements of the Roman infrastructure including aqueducts, sewage system Cloaca Maxima, city planning, use of concrete, street organization and construction, apartment buildings, the Colosseum, etc.
Homework: Critically read the primary source documents on Roman infrastructure. Answer each question in complete sentences and making references back to the documents themselves.
Primary Source: Roman Infrastructure
Day 9: Bread & Circuses
What welfare and public entertainment did the Roman Emperors provide to the people? What were the positive and negative outcomes of the policy of bread and circuses.
Class will consist of an overview and analysis of the Roman practice of providing grain, food, and other entertainment to the citizens of Rome. Class will begin with a review of the previous night's homework to check for understanding. Class will then shift gears where secondary source information will be provided on the system of bread and circuses. Students will learn specifically about events that occurred at the Colosseum. Short film clips giving an overview of the events in the Colosseum may be shown. The class discussion will focus on the motivations the government had in the policy of bread and circuses and the potential negative outcomes that may result due to this policy. Class will conclude with an analysis of a primary source reading which described bread and circuses by the Roman Suetonius.
Homework: Chapter 6 Section 4 notes and questions 1-5. Complete the unit graphic organizer.
Primary Source: Suetonius